Kratom belongs to the Rubiaceae family, scientific name
, most commonly found in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In Thailand, this plant has a high distribution in the south of the country. It is found in some provinces of the central region such as Pathum Thani and Nonthaburi. It is also found in upper Malaysia. Especially the lowlands along the river.
Kratom is a plant belonging to the needle and coffee family (Rubiaceae). It grows well in moist, moist, fertile soils and moderate sunlight. Kratom contains substances that have a neuroprotective effect. It is a plant native to Thailand and Malaysia. It can be found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia and Africa.
Botanical characteristics of kratom
- It can reach a height of up to 25 meters.
- The length around the stem is less than 1 m.
- The ear leaves are lanceolate.
- The length reaches 4 centimeters.
- It has a spine in the middle of the fast.
- Leaves elliptic or wax-shaped, 12-17 centimeters long, lobes at the end.
- Stepped leaf line
- petioles 2.5 – 5 centimeters long,
- It is a densely clustered bunch, leaving alone at the ends of the branches.
- The diameter is about 1.5-2.5 cm.
- There are about 70 – 80 flowers.
- Leaves 4-6 mm long.
- The lobe tube is about 2 mm long with a shallow tip.
- Needle-shaped flowers
- The petal tube is about 5 mm long.
- The petals are about 3 mm long.
Ovaries are smooth.
- Baton shaped stamens. Length 1-2 mm.
- Strong sum They have a diameter in the range of 2-3 centimeters.
- The longitudinal protruding fruit ranges from 7 to 9 mm.
- The seeds are flattened, about 1 millimeter long, and have thin buttons at both ends.
- It looks like a capsule.
- Inside the fruit is stuffed with seeds.
- Seeds are characterized by flattening.
There are 10 species of kratom plants worldwide, 4 of which are distributed in West Africa and 6 in Asia. It is found near the equator, such as the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, the Philippines, New Guinea, and more abundant in southern Thailand with abundant fertility and high humidity.
The species of kratom in Thailand consists of 5 species:
- Speciosa (Korth.) Havil Cottage Thom E Stretch
- rotundifolia (Roxb.)
- hirsute havil thump hump thum
- diversifolia (Wall ex G. Don) Havil hut pig poop krathum dong krathum na dumpster pig poop
- M. parvifolia Korth
There are 3 types of cottage in Thailand: red petiole type (most popular); Green petiole type (cucumber variety) and Yee leaf edge type (giant/crayfish tail) with red petiole and green petiole characteristics depending on weather conditions.
Compound characteristics of kratom
kratom plants can form and accumulate a wide range of substances, including alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, phenolic compounds, etc. Indole alkaloids are a large group of substances found in Kratom plants and the main active substance is mitragynine. The alkaloid 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-hydroxymitragynine) is not very large, but it has a stronger analgesic effect than mitraginine and morphine.
A research report compares the amount of mitragineine in Thai cottage leaves compared to Malaysia. It was found that Thailand’s mitraginine content is about 5 times higher than Malaysia’s, and it was found that the formation and accumulation patterns of alkaloids from both sources differ. Create and accumulate different substances.
Traditional use of Kratom has been reported to help in the treatment of muscle pain. Symptoms of inflammation It acts through opioid receptors (opioid receptors). In addition, kratom plants are used in the daily life of Thais and some people in Malaysia in the form of boiled drinking water or chewing fresh leaves, so that they can work outdoors longer. For animal experiments, there are many. In 1988, it was reported that Smith-Kline and French Laboratories had conducted a preclinical trial on humans. (side effects) that occur in many ways. However, no deaths have been reported from the use of Kratom alone. Both in the form of boiling, drinking water and chewing fresh leaves.
kratom is of local importance in Thailand and Malaysia. It is also found in the tropics and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia and Africa. There are long historical botanical and research records, as well as the use of kratom. It shows that choosing to apply the advantages of Kratom to further or process it industrially can drive the agricultural economy to develop.